In recent years, a number of results on the relationships between the inertias of Hermitian matrices and the inertias of their principal submatrices appeared in the literature. We study restricted congruence transformation of Hermitian matrices M which, at the same time, induce a congruence transformation of a given principal submatrix A of M. Such transformations lead to concept of the restricted signature normal form of M. In particular, by means of this normal form, we obtain short proofs of most of the known inertia theorems and also derive some new results of this type. For some applications, a special class of almost unitary restricted congruence transformations turns out to be useful. We show that, with such transformations, M can be reduced to a quasi-diagonal form which, in particular, displays the eigenvalues of A. Finally, applications of this quasi-spectral decomposition to generalize inverses and Hermitian matrix pencils are discussed.